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Willkomm Herbarium

H. M. Willkomm

willkomm_photo

Moritz Heinrich Willkomm (born 29 June 1821, Mittel Herwigsdorf by Zittau, Bohemia– died 26 August 1895, Schloss Wartenberg, Niemes; Bol. Soc. Brot. 12: 160.1895).

M. Willkomm’s initial experience at the University of Leipzig was rather turbulent. The politically stormy 1840s saw him involved in students political claims for a union and, as some others, he had to leave the country. By then, he was already assistant to Gustav Kunze, who, knowing of the interesting findings of Boissier and Reuter in the Iberian Peninsula, suggested to Moritz to make god use of this exile and travel and collect there. So he did. This turned out to be only the first of the three trips of Willkomm to the Iberian Peninsula. He loved so much this first experience that, once he could return to the University, he gave up his degree in medicine and took natural sciences (botany). He received his doctorate in 1849 with a study on the organography and classification of the Globulariaceae.

His second trip to the Iberian Peninsula was in 1850 and he explored the NE and C Spain. Back to Leipzig he got married and in 1854 he became curator of the Herbarium of the University and assistant at the University after Kunze’s dead for a very short time. Then he moved to the famous Royal Academy of Forestry at Tharandt as Professor of Natural History. Forestry became his field of main contribution. He established the first principles of the modern plant sociology by associating different species to different kinds of vegetation, soil requirements and horizontal and vertical growth.

During his travels in Europe and met the Dane Johan Lange and became collaborators on the study of Willkomm’s Iberian collection. Together they eventually published in 1861-80 the first Flora of the area, Prodromus Flora Hispanicae. A number of his publications on the Iberian Peninsula were with detailed coloured lithograph plates, helping to the identification of plants. Following from his commitment to the flora of the area he was given many awards.

Willkomm_trip

In 1868, Willkomm moved to the university at Dorpat (today Tartu). The Russian government invited him as full professor and gave him various honors but he stayed for five years only as the climate was not good for his health. Before returning home he departed to the Iberian Peninsula for his third and last trip, at the age of 52. This time he botanized in SE Spain and the Balearic Islands.

In 1874 he was appointed Professor of Botany and Director of the Botanic Garden of the Charles University, Praha. This was Willkomm’s last job. While at Praha, he was contacted by Júlio Henriques, professor of botany at Coimbra University, on the flora of Portugal. They corresponded for a while and, as Willkomm was approaching retirement, became to an agreement as to the destiny to be given to Willkomm’s herbarium. It was bought by the University of Coimbra and it arrived in 1880 on the agreed condition that it would always be kept separate – so it is till today.

Soon after Willkomm's retirement the botanic garden in Praha moved between 1897-98 from near the banks of the Vltava to the New Town (in Na Slupi) because of the repeated floods.

Willkomm retired in 1893/92 but continued his trips. It was during this last trip in 1895 that he died, in Schloss Wartenberg near Niemes, at the age of 74.

See also: Devesa Alacaraz, J. A. & Viera Benitez, M.C. (2001). Viajes de un botánico sajón por la Península Ibérica. Heinrich Moritz Willkomm (1821-1895). Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Extremadura. Cáceres.



Publications on the flora of the Iberian Peninsula:

Willkomm, H. M. (1844). Botanisch Berichte aus Spanien. Botanische Zeitung 2: 555, 721, 769, 817, 836. Translated into English: Botanical notices from Spain. Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. 15.

Willkomm, H. M. (1845). Botanisch Berichte aus Spanien. Botanische Zeitung 3: 297, 313, 737, 753, 777. Translated into English: Botanical notices from Spain. Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. 16.

WILLKOMM, H. M. (1846) Ober den gegenwártigen Stand der Naturwissenschaften and namentlich der Botanik in Spanien. Allg. Deutsch. Nat. Hist. Zeitung (Berlin) 1: 536-549.

Willkomm, H. M. (1846). Botanisch Berichte aus Spanien. Botanische Zeitung. 4: 33, 49, 577, 625; .Ueber das Leben ds in Malaga verstorbenen Naturforschers Felix Häuseler. Botanische Zeitung. 4: 305. Translated into English: Botanical notices from Spain. Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. 17.

Willkomm, H. M. (1847). Zwei Jahre in Spanien und Portugal, 3 Bde., Leipzig.

Willkomm, H. M. (1847). Spicilegium Fl. hispanicae. Botanische Zeitung. 5: 217, 233, 425, 857, 873.

Willkomm, H. M. (1848). Spicilegium Fl. hispanicae. Finis. Botanische Zeitung. 6: 413.

Willkomm, H. M. (1848). Prospectus d’un voyage en Espagne, en Portugal et aux Baléares dans l’intérêt des sciences naturelles. Leipzig. (similar text in Flora 32: 283-288.1849)

Willkomm, H. M. (1850). Zwei Beiträge zur Mediterranflor. Botanische Zeitung. 8: 77.

Willkomm, H. M. (1850). Vegetationsskizzen aus Spanien und Portugal. Botanische Zeitung. 8: 505, 521, 617, 633, 649, 761, 777.

Willkomm, H. M. (1851). Vegetationsskizzen aus Spanien. Botanische Zeitung. 9: 1, 33, 161, 194, 226, 249, 264.

WILLKOMM, H. M. (1851) Einige Notizen liber das Klima and die Vegetation von Galicien. Flora 34(5): 65-71.

WILLKOMM, H. M. (1851) Die botanischen Gárten von Madrid and Valencia. Flora 34(9): 129-135.

Willkomm, H. M. (1852). Wanderungen durch die nordöstlichen und centralen Provinzen Spaniens [...]. Leipzig.

Willkomm, H. M. (1852). Sertum florae Hispanicae […]. Leipzig.

Willkomm, H. M. (1852). Die strand- und steppengebiete der iberischen Halbinsel […]. Leipzig.

Willkomm, H. M. (1852). Enumeratio plantarum novarum et rariorum quas in Hispania australi regnoque algabiorum annis 1843 et 1846 legit. Linnaea 25 (1): 1-70.

Willkomm, H. M. (1855). Die Halbinsel der Pyrenäen [...] Leipzig.

Willkomm, H. M. (1852-1856). Icones et descriptiones plantarum novarum […]. Vol. 1. Leipzig. (a negative review in Notices of books. Hooker's journal of botany and Kew Garden miscellany, 1854, 6: 352).

Willkomm, H. M. (1859). Pugillus plantarum novaru peninsulae pyrenaicae […] Linaea 30: 83-142.

Willkomm, H. M. (1860). Bemerkungen über kritische Pflanzen der Mediterranflora Botanische Zeitung. 18: 101, 129.

Willkomm, H. M. (1857-1862). Icones et descriptiones plantarum novarum […]. Vol. 2. Leipzig.

Willkomm, H. M. (1857). Bemerkungen über kritische Pflanzen der Mediterranflor. Botanische Zeitung. 15: 212.

Willkomm, H. M. (1858). Bemerkungen über kritische Pflanzen der Mediterranflora (Costia, Agropyrum cristatum). Botanische Zeitung. 16: 375.

Willkomm, H. M. (1859). Bemerkungen über kritische Pflanzen der Mediterranflora. Botanische Zeitung. 17: 273, 281, 289.

Willkomm, H. M. (1859). Berichtigung Botanische Zeitung. 17: 360.

Willkomm, H. M. & Lange, J. M. C. (1861-1862). Prodromus florae Hispanicae [...] Vol. 1. Stuttgart.

Loscos, F. & Pardo, J. (1863). Series inconfecta plantarum indigenarum Aragoniae. Willkomm, H. M., ed. Dresden.

WILLKOMM, H. M. (1863) Neueste spanische botan. Literatur. Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 48(21): 365-368.

Willkomm, H. M. (1864). Bemerkungen überkritische Pflanzen der Mediterranflora (Pyrethrum glabrum und arvense, Chrysanthemum anomalum und paludosum, Prolougoa Pseudanthemis, G!ossopappus chrysanthemoides). Botanische Zeitung. 19: 249.

Willkomm, H. M. (1872). Ueher die Stammpflanze der Flores Cinae levantici. Botanische Zeitung. 30: 129.

Willkomm, H. M. (1876). Index plantarum vascularium […] Linaea 40 (1): 1-96/134?.

Willkomm, H. M. & Lange, J. M. C. (1876). Spanien und die Balearen. Reiseerlebnisse and Naturschilderungen mit wissenschaftlichen Zuscitzen und Erliiuterungen. Berlin.

Willkomm, H. M. & Lange, J. M. C. (1865-1870). Prodromus florae Hispanicae [...] Vol. 2. Stuttgart.

Willkomm, H. M. & Lange, J. M. C. (1874-1880). Prodromus florae Hispanicae [...] Vol. 3. Stuttgart.

Willkomm, H. M. (1877). Ueber Südfrüchte, deren Geschichte, Verbreitung und Cultur, besonders in SüdEuropa. Habel.

Willkomm, H. M. (1881-1885). Illustrationes florae Hispaniae […]. Vol. 1. Stuttgart.

WILLKOMM, H. M. (1881) Bemerkungen liber neue oder kritische Pflanzen der pyrenáischen Halbinsel and der Balearen. 4. Sarothamnus commutatus sp. nov.. Oesters. Bot. Z. 31(4): 105-107.

Willkomm, H. M. (1882). Aus den Hochgebirgen von Granada naturschilderungen […]. Gerold's sohn.

Willkomm, H. M. (1884). Die Pyrenäische Halbinsel. Leipzig.

Willkomm, H. M. (1886-1892). Illustrationes florae Hispaniae […]. Vol. 2. Stuttgart.

Willkomm, H. M. (1888). Ueber einige kritische Labiaten der spanisch-balearischen Flora […]. Österreichische botanische Zeitschrift 39 (2): 85-93. 

Willkomm, H. M. (1889). Neue Arten der spanisch-portugiesischen Flora [..]. Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift 39: 317-319.

WILLKOMM, H. M. (1890b) Vegetationsverhältnisse von Traz os Montes. Bot. Centralbl. 41 (13): 401-405; 42: 5-9; 42: 37-42; 42: 69-73. [resumé and translation into German of the article in Portuguese: Mariz, J. (1889). Uma excursão botânica em Traz os Montes. Bol. Soc. Brot. 7: 3-84]

WILLKOMM, H. M. (1889c) Nachtrag zu meinen Mittheilungen über einige kritische Labiaten der spanisch-balearischen Flora. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 39 (5): 161-162.

Willkomm, H. M. (1893). Supplementum Prodromi Florae Hispanicae […]. Stuttgart.

Willkomm, H. M. (1894). Statistik der Strand- und Steppenvegetation dr iberischen Halbinsel […]. Bot .Jahrb. 19: 279-320. . [translated to Portuguese by A. Möller in Bol. Soc. Brot. 1S, 12: 106-159. 1895]

Willkomm, H. M. (1896). Grundzüge der Pflanzenverbreitung auf der iberischen Halbinsel […]. Leipzig. [translated to Portuguese by A. Möller in Bol. Soc. Brot. 1S, 17: 89-154.1900]