A primeira Cátedra Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT) em Portugal é acolhida na Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra (FEUC).
A OIT é uma agência especializada das Nações Unidas, organizada por uma estrutura tripartida composta por representantes do governo, dos empregadores e dos trabalhadores. Foi criada em 1919 como parte do Tratado de Versalhes, sendo responsável pela elaboração e aplicação de convenções e recomendações internacionais sobre o trabalho.
Cátedra OIT / ILO-Chair (6th edition, 2023)
16/05/2023, 16:00h (Portuguese Local Time)
Sala Keynes (Faculdade de Economia)
Speaker Sofia Amaral de Oliveira
“A «bill of rights» for seafarers: 10 years of the entry into force of the ILO's Maritime Labour Convention, 2006”
Abstract: The ILO's Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MLC, 2006) adopted in February 2006, entered into force on 20 August 2013, 12 months after 30 Members representing nearly 60 per cent of the world gross tonnage registered their ratifications. It was designed to be applicable globally as the "fourth pillar" of the international regulatory regime for quality shipping, complementing the International Maritime Organization's (IMO) instruments dealing with safety and security of ships and protection of the marine environment. Consolidating nearly 70 conventions and recommendations adopted since the creation of the International Labour Organization in 1919, the MLC, 2006 is often called the "Seafarers' Bill of Rights", as it broadly regulates all aspects of the labour relation and sets minimum working and living conditions on board. It has a wide coverage, having currently been ratified by 102 countries, representing 96.6% of the world gross tonnage. The presentation will focus on the innovative features of this convention, which make it one-of-a-kind in the context of the ILO´s International Labour Standards system. It will explore how these unique features have allowed the convention to evolve over the past 10 years, notably to protect seafarers´ rights during the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, it will look to what lies ahead, identifying remaining challenges and gaps in seafarers'protection. (1) (1)Any views expressed are the personal views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the International Labour Organization.
Biographical note: Sofia Amaral de Oliveira is currently a Legal Specialist in the Maritime Unit of the International Labour Standards Department at the International Labour Organization's headquarters in Geneva. Throughout her professional life, she has contributed to the revision of labour laws, to minimum wage setting through social dialogue, to the adoption of work-life balance
measures and the promotion of gender equality and decent working conditions in Europe and Africa. She joined the ILO in 2009 as an associate expert at the ILO-Lisbon Office, where she was responsible for liaising with the Executive Secretariat of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) and participating in technical assistance initiatives directed to those countries on labour inspection, as well as on the elimination of child labour and forced labour. She later worked at the ILO Decent Work Team for Central and Eastern European countries in Budapest as a specialist in working conditions, employment and gender equality, and, afterwards, as International Labour Standards and Labour Law Specialist for West Africa based in Dakar, where she provided legal assistance to governments and social partners for policy formulation, drafting of labour legislation and ratification, implementation and dissemination of international labour standards on a variety of subjects. Prior to joining the ILO, she worked at the Ministry of Labour and Social Solidarity of Portugal and in the private sector, as a lawyer enrolled in the Portuguese Bar Association. She holds a degree in Law from the Faculty of Law of the University of Lisbon, where she later obtained a specialization in International Law and International Relations, and a Postgraduate degree in Labour and Social Security Law from the Universidade Nova de Lisboa.
Speaker Maria Prieto
Title of the session: “ILO's response to the global youth employment challenge”
Abstract: Youth have disproportionately suffered from multiple shocks to the labour market over the passed few decades. Lately, the shock to the educational system due to COVID-19 lockdowns has had additional consequences. The impact of these shocks has varied from region to region and from country to country. In addition, the impact has been different for young women and young men. Other factors that have influenced impact on youth include levels of education, access to markets and technology, etc. The ILO advocates for an integrated approach to youth employment policy development and implementation through the implementation of its Youth Employment Action Plan 2020-30. One of the main value-added of the organisation, reflected in the strategy, is its tripartite structure. A youth-inclusive social dialogue is thus an important tool used to support Member States to tackle the youth employment challenge and to create sustainable opportunities for the young generations.
Biographical note: Maria Prieto is an Employment and future of work specialist in the Employment, Labour Markets and Youth Branch in the ILO’s Employment Policy Department. In her current position, she leads the work on the two interrelated strategic topics of youth employment and digitalization. Maria coordinates the implementation of the ILO’s Governing Body
approved Youth Employment Action Plan 2020-30, as well as leads the work on digitalisation in the context of national employment policies. The Action plan supports ILO Member States around the world in the creation of decent work for young people. Previously, Maria worked as a Specialist in the ILO’s Future of Work Initiative, where she provided technical support to the Global Commission on the Future of Work and to the work of the ILO on the subject. Maria has more than eighteen years of professional experience in the United Nations (ILO and UNDP) in positions that included thematic areas such as youth employment, digitalisation, local economic and social development, public-private partnerships for urban environment, small and micro enterprises, informal economy and infrastructure development.
Cátedra OIT / ILO-Chair (5th edition, 2022)
2022/05/18, 3pm (Portuguese Local Time)
Amphitheater 4.1 (Faculty of Economics)
Speaker Joaquim Pintado Nunes
The right to safety and health working conditions/ environments as a Fundamental Principle and Right at Work: Implications for ILO Member states
In June 2019, the International Labour Conference adopted the ILO Centenary Declaration for the Future of Work as a landmark resolution for a human-centered approach to the future of work. The Declaration recognized that occupational safety and health (OSH) is fundamental to decent work.
Following a request of the Conference to the International Labour Office to explore options for the possible integration of the right to safe and healthy working conditions in the ILO’s framework of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (FPRW), the ILO’s Governing Body has since then discussed the possible identification of occupational safety and health as a fifth category of FPRW, which would add to the existing fundamental principles of freedom of association, equality and non-discrimination, elimination of child labour and abolition of forced labour. The 110th International Labour Conference will now decide in June 2022 if the 1998 ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work will be amended accordingly, adding a fifth category of FPRW. The Conference will debate and decide on terminology to be used, the standards to be recognized as fundamental, as well as questions related to a saving clause preventing extensive interpretation of FPRW requirements as encompassing reference to OSH.
The deliberation on the nature of OSH as a FPRW will determine the obligation of all ILO Member states to respect, advance and realize the fundamental right to safe and healthy working conditions/ environment independently of ratifying the OSH conventions considered as fundamental. Governments will have a duty to report periodically to the ILO on progress made to give practice to the provisions of the OSH fundamental conventions(s).
The communication will inform of the practical implications of affirming OSH as a PFRW, the main principles affirmed by the OSH standards that may become fundamental and what kind of action is required from Member states to satisfy the constitutional obligation of protecting the life and health of workers. The communication will also explain the main concepts introduced by the Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155), and the Promotional Framework Convention for Occupational Safety and Health, 2007 (No. 187) and how these have influenced legal frameworks globally, including in the EU region.
Joaquim Pintado Nunes was born in Lisbon, Portugal. He has a master on Law and concluded post-graduate studies on labour law, on occupational safety and health, and on public administration and management.
He is currently the acting chief of the LABADMIN/OSH (Labour Administration, Labour Inspection and Occupational Safety and Health) Branch of the Governance and Tripartism Department of the International Labour Organization (ILO). He’s been the team lead on labour administration and labour inspection since 2014.
He worked in the ILO’s Decent Work Team and Country Office for Central and Eastern Europe as a specialist on labour administration and labour inspection. Before joining the ILO, he was the head of the Planning and Technical Labour Inspection Directorate of the national Authority for Working Conditions in Portugal. M Pintado Nunes worked as chief of a regional office of the national labour inspectorate, as a labour inspector and as an attorney. He was member of national inter-ministerial taskforces on labour law reform, occupational safety and health, industrial licencing and public administration. In addition, he was the national representative in two specialized committees of the European Commission, and a lecturer of occupational safety and health legislation and inspection systems. M. Pintado Nunes was given two awards for excellence in public service.
Nuno de Castro
Social Protection at the crossroads – analysis of the state of play and future perspectives
Despite the unprecedented worldwide expansion of social protection during the COVID-19 crisis, more than 4 billion people around the world remain entirely unprotected - only 47 per cent of the global population are effectively covered by at least one social protection benefit, while 4.1 billion people (53 per cent) obtain no income security at all from their national social protection system.
The new International Labour Organization (ILO) report – World Social Protection Report 2020-22: Social Protection at the crossroads – in pursuit of a better future gives a global overview of recent developments in social protection systems across countries and regions, including social protection floors, and covers the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. It finds that the pandemic response was uneven and insufficient, deepening the gap between countries with high and low income levels and failing to afford the much-needed social protection that all human beings deserve. Finally, the report identifies protection gaps and sets out key policy recommendations, including in relation to the targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Nuno de Castro, with a degree in Contemporary History, has worked since 2004 at the International Training Centre of the International Labour Organization (ITCILO), mainly as a content creator, speaker and trainer in Portuguese-speaking countries (PALOP). After years of experience in topics related to the processes of sustainable local development and the promotion of youth work, he was responsible for the work carried out in the field of training and capacity building in the area of social protection within the scope of the multilateral cooperation projects of the ILO and the ITCILO financed by the Ministry of Labour, Solidarity and Social Security in Portugal. He is currently the Coordinator of the project ACTION/Portugal to strengthen Social Protection systems in the PALOP and Timor-Leste and works from the ILO Lisbon office.
Cátedra OIT / ILO-Chair (4th edition, 2021)
Speaker David Mosler
“Driving change – the future of work in the Portuguese automotive sector”
The author analyses the future of work in the automotive sector in Portugal. He outlines the role of Portugal within the European automotive production network, the role of technological change, the evolution of business models, and the role of the policy environment in driving the structural transformation of the sector are discussed. The findings establish the automotive sector in Portugal as firmly anchored within the integrated periphery of the European production network, and as highly reliant on FDI and foreign ownership, which has strong impacts on the productivity of the sector, as well as on its working conditions. Departing from this status quo, the report sketches potential future scenarios for the sector and outlines crucial policy considerations that have to be addressed to guarantee a future of the sector that is both profitable and provides quality jobs.
David Mosler is a researcher in the ILO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia, where he produces applied research on labour market challenges within the region. His recent research investigated the future of work in the automotive sector, the role of social dialogue in addressing the COVID-19 pandemic, and labour shortages in the Visegrad countries. Prior to joining the ILO, he worked on employment and social impacts as a researcher for the European Commission and as a development cooperation practitioner for GIZ in the South Caucasus. He studied economics and political science in New York, London, Lund and Malmö.
“Estimativas Globais do Trabalho Infantil – a experiência do projeto Algodão com Trabalho Decente”
As estatísticas globais sobre trabalho infantil 2020, desenvolvidas pela OIT e UNICEF, apresentam dados alarmantes indicando que o número de crianças e adolescentes trabalhadoras aumentou para 160 milhões em todo o mundo pela primeira vez em 20 anos. A pandemia COVID-19 tornou tudo pior, colocando mais 9 milhões de crianças em risco de trabalho infantil. Um exemplo de como abordar o tema é a estratégia adotada pelo projeto de cooperação sul-sul "Algodão com trabalho decente", implementado na América Latina e África.
Fernanda Barreto é coordenadora do Programa de Cooperação Sul-Sul OIT –Brasil, no escritório da OIT em Brasília desde 2009. Com mais de 20 anos de experiência no desenvolvimento de programas de cooperação internacional, a sua vida profissional tem um foco especial no tema do trabalho infantil, não apenas no Brasil, mas também em muitos outros países nas Américas e na África. Entre outras atividades, foi peça fundamental na organização da IIIª Conferência Global sobre Trabalho Infantil realizada em Brasília, em 2013, bem como na cristalização da Iniciativa Regional América Latina e Caribe Livre do Trabalho Infantil, pela qual recebeu, junto outros colegas, prémio da OIT em 2019. Atualmente coordena o projeto global "Algodão com Trabalho Decente" executado em Paraguai, Peru, Mali e Moçambique. Fernanda é formada em Relações Internacionais e Direito, com um MBA em Desenvolvimento Sustentável.
Cátedra OIT / ILO-Chair (3rd edition, 2020)
Inequalities at work
In many countries, “vertical” income inequality between top and bottom increased sharply since the 1980s, and inequalities between men and women and between different groups in society diminished only slowly, if at all. The failure to ensure sufficiently inclusive growth has had adverse social and economic consequences even before the pandemic, including deteriorating social cohesion, reduced social mobility, and weaker economic growth. The Covid-19 pandemic has further exposed, and in many cases exacerbated, pre-existing inequalities. In “building back better” after the pandemic, urgent priority should thus be given to strengthen measures and policies to reduce inequalities and ensure a fair share of the fruits of progress to all. While inequalities begin at birth and can be reduced decisively only through a wide range of policies, including access to quality schooling for all and redistribution through taxes and transfers, much can be achieved through a fairer distribution of labour incomes. This, however, can only be achieved through fair and well-functioning labour market institutions. The paper will review in particular the role of minimum wages, collective bargaining, and contractual arrangements. In developing countries, informality is one of the main reasons for very high levels of inequality in labour earnings, and the creation of formal employment is thus of key importance for reducing inequality.
Patrick Belser is a Senior Economist, Wage Specialist, at the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in Geneva. He is the coordinator of the ILO team which provides country-level support to Members on minimum wages and publishes the ILO Global Wage Report, a flagship report of the ILO published every two years since 2008. Previously, he worked at the ILO on issues of forced labour and human trafficking. He holds a D.Phil. in economics from the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Sussex (U.K.) and also studied at the Graduate Institute for International Studies in Geneva (Switzerland) and at Columbia University in New York (U.S.A). He has published several articles and book chapters on minimum wages, forced labour, and human trafficking.
The care economy
This webinar takes a comprehensive look at unpaid and paid care work and its relationship with the changing world of work. It analyses the ways in which unpaid care work is recognized and organized, the extent and quality of care jobs and their impact on the well-being of individuals, parents and society. In the context of COVID-19, many countries have sought to reduce the increased unpaid care work pressure on persons with family responsibilities by, for example, extending the duration of parental leave or providing the financial means to allow both wage earners and the self-employed to pay for care services. It is important that the new normal offers both women and men equal opportunities in the labour market. To this end, transformative care policies should be promoted. The webinar will show the importance of investing in transformative care policies for promoting the recognition of the value of unpaid care work, the reduction of the drudgery and the redistribution of care responsibilities between women and men, and between households and the State.
Umberto Cattaneo is an Economist in the Gender, Equality and Diversity and ILOAIDS Branch of the of the Conditions of Work and Equality Department of the ILO. Umberto has recently authored the ILO centenary report on gender equality “A quantum leap for gender equality: for a better future of work for all”, which highlights key gender gaps and obstacles to decent work for women and provides a direction regarding the measures that can, and should, be taken to seize emerging opportunities in the labour markets. Umberto has also authored the major ILO report on the care economy “Care work and care jobs for the future of decent work”, which takes a comprehensive look at unpaid and paid care work and its relationship with changing world of work. More recently, Umberto authored the ILO “Indigenous Peoples Report”, which highlights the critical role played by Convention No. 169 and presents the social and economic situation of indigenous women and men by looking at key aspects such as population, employment, poverty and public policies. Prior joining the ILO, Umberto worked on female poverty for the World Bank Office of the Chief Economist for the Africa Region. Umberto has studied in several universities, including the School of Oriental and African Studies, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Université Libre de Bruxelles and obtained his PhD in Economics from the University of Genoa in Italy.
Cátedra OIT / ILO-Chair (2nd edition, 2019)
Seminário no âmbito da 2.ª Edição da Cátedra OIT | 30 de abril de 2019, pelas 11 horas, na sala Keynes
Oradora: Uma Rani
Platform economy: Opportunities and challenges for workers and business
Digital platforms are radically transforming the way business is conceived, how they interact with one another, and how they create value for the society. These platforms increasingly allow enterprises to externalize their activities by obtaining services through a broader array of actors, thus intensifying the process. Rather than subcontracting through established firms, enterprises can now outsource to a crowd that is geographically dispersed around the world to perform a diverse range of activities, conduct business transactions through new start-ups (financial services, legal services, patent services, logistics, healthcare, etc.), and profit from platform ecosystems based on network effects. These platforms are also attractive to business as it offers the possibility to complete tasks or projects at any time of the day.
On the other hand, platforms are quite attractive to workers as they provide them with employment opportunities and also the flexibility and freedom to choose when and where to work, and they can decide what tasks to perform. Its high flexibility in hours or place of work and capacity to meet individuals’ needs has the potential to foster productivity. It is also heralded for creating employment and income opportunities. However, the externalization of work by employers also raises concerns with regard to decent working conditions for the workers, living wages and social security benefits, caring for workers’ satisfaction and skill development. It has also led firms to evade legal responsibility, as current regulatory systems are not adapted to govern and regulate the on-demand digital economy. This paper uses a recent large survey of crowdworkers on five microtask platforms to understand the opportunities and challenges faced by workers on digital labour platforms. It also discusses the opportunities and challenges faced by the employers in using digital platforms based on the available empirical evidence and interviews with platform operators and clients of these platforms.
Uma Rani is Senior Economist at the Research Department, International Labour Organization (ILO).
Her current research focuses on digital platforms, global supply chains in the electronics sector, minimum wages, and income inequality, wherein she explores how labour and social institutions interact with public policies and shape the patterns of economic and social inequality. She has recently published and co-authored a report on Digital labour platforms and the future of work: Towards decent work in the online world.
Orador: Jon Messenger
“Right to disconnect”
New information and communications technologies have revolutionised work and life in the 21st century. The constant connectivity enabled by these devices allows work to be performed at any time and from almost anywhere. The results of a joint report by the ILO and European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound), Working Anytime, Anywhere: The Effects on the World of Work, synthesises the findings of national studies from 15 countries, plus the European Working Conditions Survey, to consider the effects of telework and ICT-mobile work (T/ICTM) on the world of work. Positive effects of T/ICTM work include a shortening of commuting time, greater working time autonomy, better overall work–life balance, and higher productivity. At the same time, its disadvantages include its tendency to lengthen working hours, to create interference between work and personal life, and to result in work intensification, which can lead to high levels of stress with negative consequences for workers’ health and well-being. The ambiguous and even contradictory effects of this new way of working represent a current, real-world example regarding the challenges of the future of work. A range of policy responses to the “working anytime, anywhere” phenomenon have recently emerged, including most prominently establishing a “right to digitally disconnect”. This and related policy responses recommended by the ILO’s Global Commission on the Future of Work will also be reviewed and discussed.
Jon C. Messenger is Team Leader of the Working Conditions Group with the Conditions of Work and Equality Department of the International Labour Office in Geneva, Switzerland, the Headquarters of the International Labour Organization (ILO). Jon is responsible for the ILO’s work programme on working time, work organization, and work-life balance. He specializes in policy-focused research, policy advice and technical assistance on these subjects at both the international and national levels, with a particular interest in issues relating to working time flexibility, new and evolving forms of work organization such as telework and ICT-mobile work, work sharing, and gender issues in working time. Prior to joining the ILO in 2000, Jon worked at the US Department of Labor in Washington, DC, where he served as Team Leader for Research in its Employment and Training Administration.
Jon is the author and/or editor of a number of publications on working time and work organization issues, including the following major volumes and reports: Working Time and Workers’ Preferences in Industrialized Countries: Finding the balance; Decent Working Time: New trends, new issues; Working Time Around the World: Trends in working hours, laws and policies in a global comparative perspective; Offshoring and Working Conditions in Remote Work; Work Sharing during the Great Recession: New developments and beyond; and most recently, Working Anytime, Anywhere: The effects on the world of work (a joint ILO-Eurofound report).
Seminário no âmbito da 2.ª Edição da Cátedra OIT | 21 de fevereiro de 2019, pelas 11 horas, na sala Keynes
Oradora: Catarina Braga
Talk (theme/title): Wage Report/Gender Pay Gap
O Relatório Global sobre os Salários, um estudo de referência da Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT), aprofunda na sua edição de 2018/19 o que está por detrás das diferenças salariais entre homens e mulheres.
De acordo com o estudo, o crescimento dos salários globais em 2017 caiu para a taxa mais reduzida verificada desde 2008, muito abaixo dos níveis de antes da crise financeira global. Nos últimos 20 anos, os salários médios reais quase triplicaram nos países emergentes e em desenvolvimento do G20, enquanto nos países mais desenvolvidos do G20 os mesmos aumentaram apenas 9%. Contudo, em muitas economias de médio e baixo rendimento, a desigualdade salarial permanece alta e os salários são frequentemente insuficientes para cobrir as necessidades dos trabalhadores e das suas famílias.
O relatório calcula as disparidades salariais entre homens e mulheres através de uma metodologia inovadora e mais rigorosa usando dados de 70 países que cobrem cerca de 80% dos trabalhadores assalariados em todo o mundo. Globalmente, conclui-se que as mulheres continuam a receber aproximadamente 20% menos do que os homens. Por outro lado, as explicações habitualmente usadas para justificar aquelas disparidades, nomeadamente diferenças nos níveis de educação entre homens e mulheres com empregos remunerados, desempenham um papel limitado na explicação das mesmas.
Catarina Braga é especialista em relações laborais e negociação coletiva na sede da Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT), Agência das Nações Unidas, em Genebra. Entre 2014 e 2018 foi perita associada na OIT-Lisboa e entre 2010 e 2014 foi secretária-geral no Conselho Económico e Social de Portugal. No período de 2007 a 2010 exerceu funções como assessora no Parlamento Europeu no âmbito da Comissão do Emprego e Assuntos Sociais em Bruxelas.
Iniciou a sua atividade profissional no sector privado em 1999 na área de relação com investidores numa empresa multinacional e mais tarde na banca de investimentos.
Licenciou-se em economia pela Nova School of Business and Economics em Lisboa em 1999 e concluiu um Máster en Políticas Públicas y Sociales na Universitat Pompeu Fabra em Barcelona em 2007. Em 1998 estudou na School of Economics da Erasmus Universiteit de Roterdão como bolseira do programa de intercâmbio Erasmus.
Oradora: Kirsten-Maria Schapira-Felderhoff
Talk (theme/title): Decent Work and Multilateralism
Los desafíos mundiales requieren la atención y responsabilidad mundial y soluciones globales. El multilateralismo- en las relaciones internacionales y en el contexto de las Naciones Unidas- es un sistema que asocia a varios Estados mediante reglas comunes que se vinculan con obligaciones iguales y mutuas. El trabajo de la OIT está inscrito en el contexto del marco de desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas materializado en la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible y sus 17 Objetivos (ODS) la cual incorpora plenamente el Programa de Trabajo Decente de la OIT. La misma representa una importante hoja de ruta en torno a la necesidad de una mayor cooperación para corregir asimetrías y sentar las bases de un sistema multilateral abierto, sostenible y estable. El diálogo social, uno de los elementos fundamentales del Programa de Trabajo Decente, ofrece ventajas específicas para lograr el desarrollo sostenible. Estas ventajas están vinculadas a la naturaleza incluyente del proceso del diálogo social y a la forma en la que las interacciones se organizan en ese proceso. Asimismo, en su en su informe global lanzado en enero de 2019, la Comisión Mundial sobre el Futuro del Trabajo subraya la importancia de establecer estrategias en el marco multilateral sobre el futuro del trabajo por medio del diálogo social entre los gobiernos y las organizaciones de empleadores y de trabajadores.
Jurista alemana, Estudios de derecho en la Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität en Bonn; Postgrado ante el Corte de Apelación de Colonia, Alemania; Titular de dos Exámenes de Estado habilitándole a ejercer en todas las disciplinas del derecho, a saber jueza, abogada, fiscal y administración superior del Estado; Ejerció el derecho como jueza en materia civil (Tribunal de Primer Instancia) y luego abogada litigante en un Estudio de Abogados internacionales en materia civil, derecho laboral y derecho privado internacional; trabaja con la OIT desde 1998 (1998-2004, sede de la OIT Ginebra, Departamento de Normas Internacionales del Trabajo; 2005-2009 Especialista Principal en Normas Internacionales del Trabajo en San José, Costa Rica, para los países de América Central, Haití, Panamá y República Dominicana; 2010 a 2015 Especialista Principal en Normas Internacionales del Trabajo y Relaciones Laborales, Equipo de Trabajo Decente para el los países del Cono Sur de América Latina. Desde Septiembre de 2015 Departamento de Cooperación Multilateral (MULTILATERALS) en la sede de la OIT, Ginebra.
Discussão de o Futuro do Trabalho e as Relações Laborais | 26 e 27 de abril de 2018
Title: Digital economy: Work and income security among crowd workers
Speaker: Uma Rani Amara
Short bio: Uma Rani Amara is Senior Economist at the Research Department and joined the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 2008. She holds a Ph.D in Development Economics from University of Hyderabad, India. Her main research interest lies in development economics, the informal sector, minimum wages, social policies and gender. Her current research focuses on minimum wages in developing economies, income inequality, global supply chains in electronics sector and the platform economy, wherein she explores how labour and social institutions could be strengthened to address economic and social inequality.
Abstract: Digitalization has led to the emergence of new forms of employment over the past decade, like crowd work, casual work and information and communication technologies (ICT)-based mobile work, which are increasingly gaining popularity globally. Crowd work has grown primarily due to the ICT innovations, which have enabled digitally mediated services through value chains. Crowd work is considered as a positive development in the world of work for its high flexibility in hours and place of work and capacity to meet individuals’ needs, which has been argued to foster productivity. However, crowdsourcing also challenges the existing business model and most importantly social rights as it circumvents the existing regulatory framework and operates informally. The presentation will provide insights to the on-going discussion about fair work conditions in the crowd work platforms, using a recent survey of crowd workers on five micro task platforms. It explores the implications of such externalisation of work by firms on workers’ job quality, skill development and life-long learning, and social policy.
Title: International labour standards in trade agreements
Speaker: Christian Viegelahn
Short bio: Christian Viegelahn works as an Economist in the Research Department of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in Geneva. His current research focuses on trade, global supply chains and the labour market. He is one of the co-authors of the ILO’s report on the Assessment of Labour Provisions in Trade and Investment Arrangements. Christian also works on the production of new labour market indicators, including estimates of the number of workers in global supply chains and the number workers employed by different types of enterprises. He holds a PhD in Economics from the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium. Before joining the ILO in 2011, he worked for the OECD.
Abstract:Trade and global supply chains (GSCs) have undoubtedly created opportunities for economic and social development in many countries. Given that enterprises compete globally, labour standards have the important role to create a level-playing field among all actors, prevent a “race to the bottom”, and make sure that gains of trade and GSCs are shared in a more inclusive manner. Over the past decades, the number of bilateral and multilateral trade agreements that makes reference to labour standards has increased. The presentation will show the main findings of ILO’s recent studies on labour provisions in trade agreements, looking at trends in the use of labour provisions and their impact. It will also explore the role of labour provisions as an entry point to more generally discuss the labour market implications of trade, trade policies and GSCs.
Title: Decomposing income inequality into factor income components: Evidence from selected G20 countries and the case of South Europe
Speaker: Uma Rani Amara
Abstract: Income inequality has been rising in a number of countries in recent years and has been a growing concern among academia and international organisations, resulting in a vast number of studies addressing the issue. The total income of high-income households has increased faster than that of low-income households in a number of countries, increasing the gap between high- and low-income households. Similarly, the wage gap between the top 10 per cent and bottom 10 per cent of wage earners has also widened. Research on causes and drivers of income inequality suggests that the level of inequality in a country is to a large extent determined by the labour market and social policies. Reducing inequality and combating poverty are indeed some of the main goals that have driven the development of the welfare state. A comparison of inequality across countries brings out that there are vast differences regarding labour or market income inequality, inequality in disposable income, and the extent to which redistribution can be achieved through taxes and transfers. This talk will focus on the factors that have contributed to the level of inequality and its changes over time in select G20 countries and the case of South Europe since the global economic crisis. It will also focus on the extent to which transfers and benefits can contribute to reducing inequality and whether there is increasing pressure on the welfare system since the crisis. The talk will finally focus on the factors that contribute to the rise or decline in labour income inequality, and whether these factors change over time.
Seminários sobre a História da OIT e os Empregos Verdes | 23 de fevereiro de 2018
Título: Greening with Jobs | Orador: Guilhermo Montt
Título: ILO History | Orador: Dorothea Hoehtker
Simulação CIT | OIT | Sessão Pública de Esclarecimento | 28 SET 2016
A CIT é a Conferência Internacional do Trabalho que acontece a cada ano com os Estados membros da OIT.
Na CIT de 2015 o diretor-geral da Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT), Guy Ryder, apresentou o seu relatório “O Futuro do Trabalho – iniciativa do centenário”, que antecipa a comemoração dos 100 anos da OIT, em 2019. As reflexões que estão a ter lugar aos níveis mundial, regional e local são sobretudo de natureza tripartida (envolvendo governos e representantes dos empregadores e dos trabalhadores). Neste quadro, a Faculdade de Economia e a Universidade de Coimbra, respondendo a um desafio lançado pelo Centro de Estudos Sociais/UC e pela OITLisboa, decidiram associar-se, dando voz aos/às estudantes quanto à sua visão sobre o Futuro do Trabalho, através de uma simulação da CIT, iniciativa inédita em meio universitário nacional e europeu.