Cátedra Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT)
A primeira Cátedra Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT) em Portugal é acolhida na Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra (FEUC).
A OIT é uma agência especializada das Nações Unidas, organizada por uma estrutura tripartida composta por representantes do governo, dos empregadores e dos trabalhadores. Foi criada em 1919 como parte do Tratado de Versalhes, sendo responsável pela elaboração e aplicação de convenções e recomendações internacionais sobre o trabalho.
Title: Digital economy: Work and income security among crowd workers
Speaker: Uma Rani Amara
Short bio: Uma Rani Amara is Senior Economist at the Research Department and joined the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 2008. She holds a Ph.D in Development Economics from University of Hyderabad, India. Her main research interest lies in development economics, the informal sector, minimum wages, social policies and gender. Her current research focuses on minimum wages in developing economies, income inequality, global supply chains in electronics sector and the platform economy, wherein she explores how labour and social institutions could be strengthened to address economic and social inequality.
Abstract: Digitalization has led to the emergence of new forms of employment over the past decade, like crowd work, casual work and information and communication technologies (ICT)-based mobile work, which are increasingly gaining popularity globally. Crowd work has grown primarily due to the ICT innovations, which have enabled digitally mediated services through value chains. Crowd work is considered as a positive development in the world of work for its high flexibility in hours and place of work and capacity to meet individuals’ needs, which has been argued to foster productivity. However, crowdsourcing also challenges the existing business model and most importantly social rights as it circumvents the existing regulatory framework and operates informally. The presentation will provide insights to the on-going discussion about fair work conditions in the crowd work platforms, using a recent survey of crowd workers on five micro task platforms. It explores the implications of such externalisation of work by firms on workers’ job quality, skill development and life-long learning, and social policy.
Title: International labour standards in trade agreements
Speaker: Christian Viegelahn
Short bio: Christian Viegelahn works as an Economist in the Research Department of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in Geneva. His current research focuses on trade, global supply chains and the labour market. He is one of the co-authors of the ILO’s report on the Assessment of Labour Provisions in Trade and Investment Arrangements. Christian also works on the production of new labour market indicators, including estimates of the number of workers in global supply chains and the number workers employed by different types of enterprises. He holds a PhD in Economics from the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium. Before joining the ILO in 2011, he worked for the OECD.
Abstract:Trade and global supply chains (GSCs) have undoubtedly created opportunities for economic and social development in many countries. Given that enterprises compete globally, labour standards have the important role to create a level-playing field among all actors, prevent a “race to the bottom”, and make sure that gains of trade and GSCs are shared in a more inclusive manner. Over the past decades, the number of bilateral and multilateral trade agreements that makes reference to labour standards has increased. The presentation will show the main findings of ILO’s recent studies on labour provisions in trade agreements, looking at trends in the use of labour provisions and their impact. It will also explore the role of labour provisions as an entry point to more generally discuss the labour market implications of trade, trade policies and GSCs.
Title: Decomposing income inequality into factor income components: Evidence from selected G20 countries and the case of South Europe
Speaker: Uma Rani Amara
Abstract: Income inequality has been rising in a number of countries in recent years and has been a growing concern among academia and international organisations, resulting in a vast number of studies addressing the issue. The total income of high-income households has increased faster than that of low-income households in a number of countries, increasing the gap between high- and low-income households. Similarly, the wage gap between the top 10 per cent and bottom 10 per cent of wage earners has also widened. Research on causes and drivers of income inequality suggests that the level of inequality in a country is to a large extent determined by the labour market and social policies. Reducing inequality and combating poverty are indeed some of the main goals that have driven the development of the welfare state. A comparison of inequality across countries brings out that there are vast differences regarding labour or market income inequality, inequality in disposable income, and the extent to which redistribution can be achieved through taxes and transfers. This talk will focus on the factors that have contributed to the level of inequality and its changes over time in select G20 countries and the case of South Europe since the global economic crisis. It will also focus on the extent to which transfers and benefits can contribute to reducing inequality and whether there is increasing pressure on the welfare system since the crisis. The talk will finally focus on the factors that contribute to the rise or decline in labour income inequality, and whether these factors change over time.
Título: Greening with Jobs | Orador: Guilhermo Montt
Título: ILO History | Orador: Dorothea Hoehtker
A CIT é a Conferência Internacional do Trabalho que acontece a cada ano com os Estados membros da OIT.
Na CIT de 2015 o diretor-geral da Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT), Guy Ryder, apresentou o seu relatório “O Futuro do Trabalho – iniciativa do centenário”, que antecipa a comemoração dos 100 anos da OIT, em 2019. As reflexões que estão a ter lugar aos níveis mundial, regional e local são sobretudo de natureza tripartida (envolvendo governos e representantes dos empregadores e dos trabalhadores). Neste quadro, a Faculdade de Economia e a Universidade de Coimbra, respondendo a um desafio lançado pelo Centro de Estudos Sociais/UC e pela OITLisboa, decidiram associar-se, dando voz aos/às estudantes quanto à sua visão sobre o Futuro do Trabalho, através de uma simulação da CIT, iniciativa inédita em meio universitário nacional e europeu.